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It is thought, from the number of fungal and algal species involved, that the symbiosis must have taken place many times between different species. Lichens have also been used to make dyes, perfumes, and herbal medicines.Some lichen produce natural antibiotics that kill bacteria.Often the lichen is mat-like, and clings to the surface. Lichens are famous for not needing a regular supply of water; their metabolism can go into suspension, and later revive.When growing on mineral surfaces, some lichens slowly break down the substrate, and extract tiny amounts of mineral nutrient.Most common (over 40%) are Ascomycetes, which produce spores in a sac-shaped container, the ascus.Only a few types of alga occur within lichens; these algae also have their own names.The details vary according to the specific species or strains involved.The man who first realised the nature of lichen, Simon Schwedener, thought of the partnership as one of controlled parasitism.
Also, lichen fungi can reproduce sexually by forming fruiting bodies containing spores.These fruiting bodies are usually perennial, and may be long-lasting: some in the Swiss Alps have lived for over 50 years.After dispersal by wind, such fungal spores must meet with an algal partner to form a lichen.Other species are the orange Trentepohli, and the cyanobacterium Nostoc.The life habit of lichens is to stick closely onto surfaces.
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Lichens can occur anywhere on land, and some can live in aquatic environments.